These power supplies will still function with older ATX systems using the pin main power connector, provided there is sufficient space. Information in this article applies broadly to different types of power supplies.
Make sure a power supply is compatible with your computer before making a purchase. Desktop specification standards were created to define the various dimensions, layouts, and electrical requirements so that parts can be exchanged between vendors and systems.
As power requirements and layouts changed, the industry developed a new definition called Advanced Technology Extended ATX in All computer systems require a power supply capable of converting electrical power from high voltage wall outlets to the low voltage currents used by the system components. Part of the purpose of having specification standards is ensuring backward compatibility, so power supplies that are ATX12V compliant will usually work with ATX systems, but older ATX components do not work with newer machines.
The differences between the current ATX12V 2. Your motherboard will be the biggest decider on which power supply to use. Make sure you check to see if you have a pin or pin connector on the motherboard.
If you're not sure, always check with the manufacturer of your motherboard for proper power needs. PCI Express has a watt power requirement, which was not possible with the older pin connector, so four additional pins were added to supply the additional power through 12V rails. Older ATX v1. The pin layout on ATX12V is keyed such that the pin power connector can actually be used on older ATX motherboards with the pin connector.
The caveat is that the four extra pins will reside off to the side of the power connector on the motherboard, so be sure there is enough clearance for the extra pins if you plan on using an ATX12V unit with an older ATX motherboard. As the power demands for processors, drives, and fans keep growing, the amount of power supplied over the 12V rails from the power supply has also grown.
In order to address this, the ATX12V standard now requires the 12V rail to be split into two separate rails for any power supply that produces extremely high amperage. Some high wattage power supplies even have three independent 12V rails for increased stability.
ATX power supplies normally only use a single rail at 3. Some increased power demands required some additional power. You may find some ATX power supplies with an additional rail to provide that additional power. When the electrical current is converted from the pahrump arrests 2019 outlet voltage to the lower voltage levels needed for the computer components, there is bound to be some waste that gets transferred into heat.
So, even though a power supply may provide W of power, it is actually pulling more current from the wall.
What is EPS12V?
The power efficiency rating determines how much power is pulled from the wall compared to the output to the computer. Using a higher efficiency power supply for your PC can lower your power bill. As manufacturers have all but stopped production, if you have an older motherboard, you'll have to rely on the ATX12V's backward compatibility to keep older PC's running.
Tweet Share Email. More from Lifewire.ATX Advanced Technology eXtended is a motherboard and power supply configuration specification developed by Intel in to improve on previous de facto standards like the AT design. It was the first major change in desktop computer enclosuremotherboard and power supply design in many years, improving standardization and interchangeability of parts. ATX is the most common motherboard design. The official ATX specifications were released by Intel in and have been revised numerous times since.
The most recent ATX motherboard specification is version 2. An advantage of having an EATX motherboard is dual socket support. Some manufacturers introduced the new standard; however, in Intel discontinued any future development of BTX.
As of [update]the ATX design still remains popular. On the back of the computer case, some major changes were made to the AT standard.
Originally AT style cases had only a keyboard connector and expansion slots for add-on card backplates. Any other onboard interfaces such as serial and parallel ports had to be connected via flying leads to connectors which were mounted either on spaces provided by the case or brackets placed in unused expansion slot positions.
ATX allowed each motherboard manufacturer to put these ports in a rectangular area on the back of the system with an arrangement they could define themselves, though a number of general patterns depending on what ports the motherboard offers have been followed by most manufacturers.
Other legacy connectors that are slowly being phased out of modern ATX motherboards include pin parallel ports and 9-pin RS serial ports. A notable issue with the ATX specification was that it was last revised when power supplies were normally placed at the top, rather than the bottom, of computer cases. This makes it very difficult for cables from bottom mounted power supplies to reach, and commonly requires a special cutout in the back plane for the cable to come in from behind and bend around the board, making insertion and wire management very difficult.
Many power supply cables barely reach or fail to reach, or are too stiff to make the bend, and extensions are commonly required due to this placement. Several ATX-derived designs have been specified that use the same power supply, mountings and basic back panel arrangement, but set different standards for the size of the board and number of expansion slots.
Standard ATX provides seven slots at 0. Here width refers to the distance along the external connector edge, while depth is from front to rear. Note each larger size inherits all previous smaller colors area. Since references to Mini ATX have been removed from ATX specifications since the adoption of microATX, the AOpen definition is the more contemporary term and the one listed above is apparently only of historical significance.ATX12V 4-pin connection force PSU to shut down
A number of manufacturers have added one, two or three additional expansion slots at the standard 0. Proprietary motherboard designs such as those by Compaq, Packard-Bell, Hewlett Packard and others existed, and were not interchangeable with multi-manufacturer boards and cases. Portable and notebook computers and some inch rackmount servers have custom motherboards unique to their particular products. InFoxconn unveiled a Foxconn F1 motherboard prototype, which has the same width as a standard ATX motherboard, but an extended The new design is dubbed "HPTX" and is Originally, the motherboard was powered by one pin connector.
The connector pin pitch is 4. The 20—pin Molex Mini-Fit Jr. Original AT cases flat case style have an integrated power switch that protruded from the power supply and sits flush with a hole in the AT chassis. The general configuration is a double-pole latching mains voltage switch with the four pins connected to wires from a four-core cable.
The wires are either soldered to the power button making it difficult to replace the power supply if it failed or blade receptacles were used. An ATX power supply is typically controlled by an electronic switch connected to the power button on the computer case and allows the computer to be turned off by the operating system. In addition, many ATX power supplies have an equivalent-function manual switch on the back that also ensures no power is being sent to the components. When the switch on the power supply is turned off, however, the computer cannot be turned on with the front power button.
The power supply's connection to the motherboard was changed from the older AT and LPX standards; AT and LPX had two similar connectors that could be accidentally interchanged by forcing the different keyed connectors into place, usually causing short-circuits and irreversible damage to the motherboard the rule of thumb for safe operation was to connect the side-by-side connectors with the black wires together.
ATX uses one large, keyed connector which can not be connected incorrectly. The new connector also provides a 3. If using an ATX PSU for purposes other than powering an ATX motherboard, power can be fully turned on it is always partly on to operate "wake-up" devices by shorting the "power-on" pin on the ATX connector pin 16, green wire to a black wire groundwhich is what the power button on an ATX system does. A minimum load on one or more voltages may be required varies by model and vendor ; the standard does not specify operation without a minimum load and a conforming PSU may shut down, output incorrect voltages, or otherwise malfunction, but will not be hazardous or damaged.Stands for "Advanced Technology eXtended.
It was introduced by Intel in and was designed to replace the previous "AT" standard for desktop PCs. Since then, many variations of the original ATX standard have been developed and some are still used in today's desktop computers. These changes provide the following benefits:. A full size ATX motherboard is 12 inches wide and 9. There are also several variants of ATX, which have slightly different form factors. This include the following:. The universal compatibility of ATX boards and components make them a popular choice for hobbyists who build their own PCs.
This page contains a technical definition of ATX. It explains in computing terminology what ATX means and is one of many hardware terms in the TechTerms dictionary. All definitions on the TechTerms website are written to be technically accurate but also easy to understand. If you find this ATX definition to be helpful, you can reference it using the citation links above.
If you think a term should be updated or added to the TechTerms dictionary, please email TechTerms! Subscribe to TechTerms.ATX is an industry-wide specification for a desktop computer's motherboard. ATX improves the motherboard design by taking the small AT motherboard sometimes known as the "Baby AT" or BAT that was an earlier industry standard and rotating by 90 degrees the layout of the microprocessor and expansion slot s.
This allows space for more full-length add-in card s. The new layout is also intended to be less costly to manufacture. Fewer cables are needed. The power supply has a side-mounted fan, allowing direct cooling of the processor and cards, making a secondary fan unnecessary.
Power supply unit (computer)
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Login Forgot your password? Forgot your password?The ATX 24 pin power supply connector is the standard motherboard power connector in computers today. Below is the complete pinout table for the standard ATX 24 pin 12V power supply connector as of Version 2.
If you're using this pinout table to test power supply voltagesbe aware that the voltages must be within ATX specified tolerances. The ATX 24 pin 12V power supply connector can only be plugged in while pointing a specific direction on the motherboard. If you look carefully at the following illustration, you can see that the pins take a unique shape, a shape which the motherboard matches in only one direction. The original ATX standard supported a 20 pin connector with a very similar pinout as the 24 pin connector but with pins 11, 12, 23, and 24 omitted.
This means that the newer 24 pin power supply is useful for motherboards that require more power, and therefore eliminates the need for ATX 12V power supplies to provide an auxiliary power cable although some still may.
The additional four pins are usually detachable like you can probably see in the lower part of the image aboveallowing it to be used on a 20 pin motherboard connection. The extra block of pins simply hangs over the motherboard connector - they don't plug into another slot. Some motherboards allow the reverse: to use the older 20 pin power supply cable on a 24 pin motherboard connection. If you need to use a 24 pin power supply connector on a motherboard that only accepts a 20 pin cable, there are a number of online retailers where you can purchase a 24 pin to 20 pin adapter, like this StarTech adapter from Amazon.
Though the motherboard appears to accept all 24 pins using this type of adapter, it still, of course, means that the additional four pins go unused. Tweet Share Email. The connector itself is a Molex connector, often called a Molex Mini-fit Jr.
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Most modern desktop personal computer power supplies conform to the ATX specificationwhich includes form factor and voltage tolerances. ATX power supplies are turned on and off by a signal from the motherboard.
They also provide a signal to the motherboard to indicate when the DC voltages are in spec, so that the computer is able to safely power up and boot. The desktop computer power supply changes alternating current from a wall socket of mains electricity to low-voltage direct current to operate the processor and peripheral devices. Several direct-current voltages are required, and they must be regulated with some accuracy to provide stable operation of the computer.
A power supply rail or voltage rail refers to a single voltage provided by a power supply unit PSU. First-generation microcomputer and home computer power supply units used a heavy step-down transformer and a linear power supply, as used, in for example, the Commodore PET introduced in The Apple IIalso introduced inwas noted for its switched-mode power supplywhich was lighter and smaller than an equivalent linear power supply would have been, and which had no cooling fan.
The switched-mode supply uses a ferrite-cored high frequency transformer and power transistors that switch thousands of times per second. By adjusting the switching time of the transistor, the output voltage can be closely controlled without dissipating energy as heat in a linear regulator.
The development of high-power and high-voltage transistors at economical prices made it practical to introduce switch mode supplies, that had been used in aerospace, mainframes, minicomputers and color television, into desktop personal computers. The Apple II design by Atari engineer Rod Holt was awarded a patent,   and was in the vanguard of modern computer power supply design.
Now all modern computers use switched-mode power supplies, which are lighter, less costly, and more efficient than equivalent linear power supplies. Computer power supplies may have short circuit protection, overpower overload protection, over-voltage protection, under-voltage protection, over-current protection, and over-temperature protection.
The ATX standard followed some manufacturers design [ citation needed ] to have power supplies also supply a standby voltage, so that most of the computer system could be powered off after preparing for hibernation or shutdown, and powered back on by an event. This standby voltage is generated by a smaller power supply inside the unit.
The standby power source was a small linear power supply with conventional transformer, which was later changed to a switching power supply, sharing some components of the main unit due to cost- and energy-saving requirements. Power supplies designed for worldwide use were once equipped with an input voltage selector switch that allowed the user to configure the unit for use on local power grid.
Connecting the unit configured for the lower range to a higher-voltage grid usually resulted in an immediate permanent damage. When the power factor correction PFC was required, those filter capacitors were replaced with higher-capacity ones, together with a coil installed in series to delay the inrush current.