Comment 0. Server-Side Request Forgery SSRF refers to an attack wherein an attacker is able to send ingenico status codes crafted request from a vulnerable web application.
SSRF is usually used to target internal systems behind firewalls that are normally inaccessible to an attacker from the external network. Typically Server-Side Request Forgery SSRF occurs when a web application is making a request, where an attacker has full or partial control of the request that is being sent. A common example is when an attacker can control all or part of the URL to which the web application makes a request to some third-party service.
In the above example, since the attacker has full control of the URL parameter, in addition to being able to make arbitrary GET requests to any website on the Internet, an attacker can also make requests to resources on the server. Similarly, Server-Side Request Forgery SSRF can be used to make requests to other internal resources which the web server has access to, but are not publicly facing.
This service is only available to the server and not to the outside world. Depending on how the application is making the request, URL schemas other than file and HTTP could be available to the attacker to use.
Attacking Cloud Containers Using SSRF
Port is the default port used by Memcachedwhich is not normally exposed. Acunetix solves this by making use of AcuMonitor as its intermediary service during an automated scan. The alert contains information about the HTTP request that was performed including the IP address of the server that made this request and the User-agent string used in the request if any were used.
This information can help the developers identify the source of the problem and fix it. In general, blacklists are a poor security control because there will always be bypasses not envisaged by a developer.
Ensuring that the response received by the remote server is indeed what the server is expecting is important to prevent any unforeseen response data leaking to the attacker. Above all else, under no circumstances should the raw response body from the request sent by the server be delivered to the client. Server-Side Request Forgery vulnerabilities could provide an attacker with the opportunity to access some of these services without any authentication standing in the way.
See the original article here. Over a million developers have joined DZone. Let's be friends:.Protect your applications from common web vulnerabilities such as SQL injection and cross-site scripting. Monitor your web applications using custom rules and rule groups to suit your requirements and eliminate false positives.
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Route traffic to back-end server pools with URL path-based routing, and to multiple web applications using host header-based routing. Scale your web application with SSL offload, and centralize SSL certificate management to reduce encryption and decryption overhead on your servers. Microsoft Azure enables us to quickly respond to changing traffic on spaactor. Above all, our internet search engine for spoken content is easily scalable and available through the Azure infrastructure worldwide.
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An SSRF, privileged AWS keys and the Capital One breach
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Microsoft invests more than USD 1 billion annually on cybersecurity research and development. We employ more than 3, security experts completely dedicated to your data security and privacy. Azure has more compliance certifications than any other cloud provider.Server Side Request Forgery can be an extremely lucrative finding to an attacker because of the ability to make requests from the target machine. For AWS this has always been a cause for concern as there was no authentication present to access this instance, and no requirement for a custom header that both GCP and Azure have.
An attacker could then impersonate the role attached to the machine using the temporary credentials and do additional discovery or damage. With the introduction of the version 2 of the Instance Metadata by AWS, authentication is now a requirement to query the endpoint. IMDSv2 adds the following exploit mitigating changes to access the endpoint. This is a fairly new update. As with any new feature that is introduced after a long interval, the adoption rate is going to be slow. Infra and ops teams that rely on automated scripts to perform actions on AWS EC2 instances based on metadata information will need to update their scripts, add provision to make PUT requests, use the tokens in ALL other requests etc.
So, yeah lot of work is needed for everyone to start using this. This update does not protect applications that are vulnerable to more advanced forms of SSRF. A web application or a network aware service that allows you to craft a complete HTTP request and then makes that request on your behalf from the server, will still be vulnerable. Common examples would be API proxying applications, API query builders with API console access think old Apigee daysweb functionality with command argument or vanilla command injection would still be vulnerable.
Any other vulnerabilities that allow for a complete control of the HTTP request to be made would still go through. The scenarios are plenty, limited only by our imagination. That said, it is important to note that this is a new feature, is not enabled by default and will likely not be used in systems where a lot of dependency is present on version 1.
At Appsecco we provide advice, testing and training around software, infra, web and mobile apps, especially that are cloud hosted. Drop us an email, contact appsecco. Sign in. Riyaz Walikar Follow. Appsecco Making sense of application security for everyone. Chief Offensive Security Officer, Appseccouk. Appsecco Follow.Discover, assess, and migrate on-premises applications, infrastructure, and data. Centrally plan and track the migration across multiple Microsoft and partner tools. Comprehensive discovery, assessment, and migration capabilities powered by Azure and partner tools.
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See Removing an identity below. Downstream resources will also need to have access policies updated to use the new identity. This topic shows you how to create a managed identity for App Service and Azure Functions applications and how to use it to access other resources. The identity is managed by the Azure platform and does not require you to provision or rotate any secrets. Creating an app with a system-assigned identity requires an additional property to be set on the application. To set up a managed identity in the portal, you will first create an application as normal and then enable the feature.
If using a function app, navigate to Platform features. For other app types, scroll down to the Settings group in the left navigation. Within the System assigned tab, switch Status to On.
Click Save. To set up a managed identity using the Azure CLI, you will need to use the az webapp identity assign command against an existing application.
You have three options for running the examples in this section:. The following steps will walk you through creating a web app and assigning it an identity using the CLI:. Use an account that's associated with the Azure subscription under which you would like to deploy the application:.
Create a web application using the CLI. This article has been updated to use the new Azure PowerShell Az module. You can still use the AzureRM module, which will continue to receive bug fixes until at least December The following steps will walk you through creating a web app and assigning it an identity using Azure PowerShell:. Create a web application using Azure PowerShell.
An Azure Resource Manager template can be used to automate deployment of your Azure resources.Web applications can trigger requests in between HTTP servers.
These are typically used to fetch remote resources such as software updates, or to import meta data from a URL or another web application.
While such inter-server requests are typically safe, unless implemented correctly they can render the server vulnerable to Server Side Request Forgery. In a SSRF attack the attacker can change a parameter used on the web application to create or control requests from the vulnerable server.
When information in a web application has to be retrieved from an external resource, which could also be internal services, such as a RSS feed from another website, server side requests are used to fetch the resource and include it in the web application. If the attacker is able to change the url parameter to localhostthen he is able to view local resources hosted on the server, making it vulnerable to Server Side Request Forgery.
If an attacker is able to control the destination of the server side requests they can potentially perform the following actions:. As a best practice, it is always good to keep the attack surface as small as possible, therefore access to certain ports or actions is often restricted to whitelisted machines only.
In fact servers usually have a trust relationship with other machines in order to easily share data and allow administrative tasks. For example at a network level, this trust means a firewall only allows access to certain ports if the machine requesting access is on the same local network, or if its IP address is explicitly trusted. At a software level trust can be as follows; authentication is not required for some administrative tasks, as long as the IP is Such trust can also be used as an additional security measure, to assure that even if an attacker knows the password, he cannot login without access to the local network.
The attacker can therefore perform malicious actions on the server itself that would otherwise not be possible from the outside. By exploiting a Server Side Request Forgery vulnerability, attackers may be able to scan the local or external networks to which the vulnerable server is connected to. Attackers typically use the time a page takes to load, error message, or banners of the service they are probing to determine whether the probe they are targeting is responding or not, and to confirm if the tested port is open.
Imagine a service on a website that allows you to fetch remote jpeg images so it can determine their dimensions. Now that we know how the application behaves for different inputs we can try to abuse it.
That means that if we send the following request. Therefore we can use this method on the vulnerable web application to probe different internal IP addresses and ports to make a complete scan. So the attacker is doing port scans without using port scanning software.
When the content of a remote resource is directly rendered to a page, there is a possibility that the attackers reads the content of the files. As an example consider a web service that removes all images from a given url and formats the text. It works by first getting the response body of a given url, then applies the formatting.
The same technique can be used to view the source code of the vulnerable web application. As seen in the above examples, the impact of exploiting a Server Side Request Forgery vulnerability is almost always information disclosure, such as:.
There are several other things attackers can do when exploiting a SSRF vulnerability, some of which can have more severe consequences, but it mainly depends on how the web application uses the responses from the remote resource.
To prevent SSRF vulnerabilities in your web applications it is strongly advised to use a whitelist of allowed domains and protocols from where the web server can fetch remote resources. Also, as a rule of thumb you should avoid using user input directly in functions that can make requests on behalf of the server. You should also sanitize and filter user input, but it is typically very hard to implement mainly because it is virtually impossible to cover all the different scenarios.
This is only a small portion of bypasses that attackers have in their arsenal, therefore it is recommended to avoid user input in functions that issue requests on behalf of the server.
You can use the Netsparker web application security scanner to automatically identify Server Side Request Forgery vulnerabilities in your web applications and internal systems. Netsparker uses the Netsparker Hawk vulnerability testing infrastructure to detect SSRF and second order vulnerability. Keep up with the latest web security content with weekly updates. Complimentary day, on-prem license available for entities involved in Covid19 response.
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Already on GitHub? Sign in to your account. From the coreruleset. It would be prudent to add something about this in the documentation and give some guidance on how to protect specific applications against SSRF using WAF.
Or is this one attack where WAF simply can't protect us? It is required for docs. NimlethDo you have any update on this issue? I was waiting to see if anybody else from MSFT would comment on this. The reason being that I'm rather disappointed by the answer. No AI, no active tuning of rules based on detected attack patterns etc. You have a global team analyzing what hackers are throwing at your systems, I expected that this would be fed back into components like the WAF.
Also, WAF is not a set-and-forget technology and requires constant tuning. Developers need to understand this and need guidance. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Sign up. New issue. Jump to bottom. Nimleth opened this issue Sep 9, — with docs.
Copy link Quote reply. Hi, From the coreruleset. This comment has been minimized. Sign in to view. Let me know if you have any further questions. Lets just close this threat. Rgds, Dennis. Nimleth closed this Sep 10, Sign up for free to join this conversation on GitHub. Already have an account? Sign in to comment. Linked pull requests. You signed in with another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session.